Metabolic Disease Affects Over Half of the US Adult Population

More than 100M adults in the U.S. live with diabetes or prediabetes (30M have diabetes and 84M have prediabetes).

In type 2 diabetes, a metabolic disease, the body produces insulin, but the cells do not respond to it the way they should. This is called “insulin resistance” and results in difficulty regulating blood sugar in the body.

Learn About Type 2 Diabetes

Symptoms

30M people in the US are afflicted with diabetes, but 7M — about 1 in 4 of all people with diabetes — are not aware they have the condition. Initially, type 2 symptoms can be mild and go unnoticed. Symptoms missed may include frequent urination, excessive thirst, unusual weight loss, blurry vision, extreme hunger, irritability, and increased fatigue.

Causes

After eating, the body breaks down food into glucose (sugar) and delivers it to cells through the blood. Insulin, a hormone released from the pancreas, helps move glucose from the bloodstream into the cells. When glucose enters cells, it is either used as energy or fuel for all of the body’s cells, including the brain, heart, and muscles. Excess glucose gets stored in the liver as glycogen or, with the help of insulin, converted into fatty acids, circulated to other parts of the body and stored as fat in adipose tissue.

Diabetes is a disease in which the body’s ability to produce or respond to insulin is impaired resulting in elevated levels of glucose in the blood and urine. In type 1 diabetes, there is a complete lack of insulin. In type 2 diabetes, either insulin is not working adequately as a result of insulin resistance, where the body resists the effects of insulin,  or there is an actual lack of insulin causing blood glucose levels to rise. While the exact cause is unknown, both genetic and environmental factors play a role. Risk factors include obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, race, age, and family history. There is no known cure, but keeping glucose levels in target ranges can reduce the risk of complications.

Treatments

The diabetes standard of care includes recommendations for certain medications, increased physical activity, and diet modifications. These recommendations and guidelines are general in nature and tend to have a modest impact on blood sugar balance. DayTwo’s personalized approach shows you how each individual’s blood glucose responds to specific foods and meals so every person can better manage their blood sugar levels. It helps those who feel they have done everything “right” only to see blood glucose above target.

Factors Impacting Blood Glucose

Many factors affect blood glucose levels, such as food (especially carbohydrates), stress hormones, and some medications (like steroids). Factors that can lower glucose levels include physical activity, insulin, weight loss and diabetes medications. New research is showing that gut bacteria (the microbiome) is an important influence on blood glucose. And since everyone’s gut bacteria is very different, a personalized approach that tailors food recommendations based on your microbiome, can lead to more stable blood glucose levels.

Managing Blood Glucose

The goal of treatment is to keep glucose levels in target ranges as much as possible. The treatment plan for most people with type 2 diabetes includes both a meal plan, an exercise plan, and diabetes medications. Some people may be able to keep their glucose levels in target ranges with a personalized nutrition plan only.

Blood glucose measures, either through regular self monitoring or continuous monitoring through a device will demonstrate if the treatment plan is working and if glucose levels are in the target range.

For most people, the pre-meal blood glucose target is 80-130 and post-meal target (checked 1-2 hrs after the beginning of the meal) should be less than 180. For those wearing a CGM, the measure “time in range”, or the percentage of time your blood glucose levels are between 70-180 is important. The healthcare provider will set a goal for glucose to be within that range a certain % of time). The A1C test reflects average glycemia over the past 3 months. For most people living with type 2 diabetes, the goal is to have an A1C less than 7%.

By keeping the A1C and blood glucose levels in target range, this greatly reduces the risk for problems (such as damaged blood vessels) that can result from chronic high blood glucose levels.

Prediabetes

Prediabetes is the term used for individuals whose blood sugar levels do not meet the criteria for type 2 diabetes but is still too high to be considered normal. People diagnosed with prediabetes need to keep their blood glucose levels within a target range. Usual treatment recommendations include weight management (typically 7% weight loss) and increased physical activity (150 min/week or more). The DayTwo app helps by guiding individuals to select meals and snacks that will have the least impact on blood glucose and keeps them in range.

Who is at risk for Type 2 Diabetes?

Glycemic Control

The goal of treatment is to keep glucose levels in target ranges as much as possible

The treatment plan for most people with type 2 diabetes includes a meal plan, an exercise plan, and diabetes medications. Some people may be able to keep their glucose levels in target ranges with a personalized nutrition plan only.

For most people, the pre-meal blood glucose target is 80-130 and post-meal target (checked 1-2 hrs after the beginning of the meal) should be less than 180. When blood glucose is high the body stores it in fat cells and as it drops craving and hunger increase.

By keeping the A1C (3 month test of blood glucose)  and blood glucose levels in target range, this greatly reduces the risk for problems (such as damaged blood vessels) that can result from chronic high blood glucose levels.

Many factors affect blood glucose levels, such as food (especially carbohydrates), stress hormones, and some medications (like steroids). Factors that can lower glucose levels include physical activity, insulin, weight loss and diabetes medications. New research is showing that gut bacteria (the microbiome) is an important influence on blood glucose.